The subject of the thesis is about EU-Russia relations. I am really interested in knowing what the key points are and the challenges of their relations is a very difficult one: that is the energychallenge.
The energychallenge is indeed one of the greatest tests for Europe. Unlike the financial crisis, it could take decades to put our energy system onto a new, more sustainable and secure path. We need urgent and ambitious decisions today to prepare our society for a low-carbon, efficient and democratic energy future.
The problematic aspects of European dependence on Russian energy became especially obvious during the Ukrainian gas crisis, and it was reconfirmed by Russian energy diplomacy against Belarus, Georgia, and Lithuania. These developments have clearly showed that Russia uses its energy leverage as an active component of its foreign policy and the EU is quite vulnerable to the Russian gas policies. In order to overcome these vulnerabilities, the EU has to diversify its energy resources.
All indeed recognise that the right level of intervention is at least the European Union. The challenges facing us are too overwhelming to be resolved by one Member State. The unpredictability of energy security, the volatility in energy prices and the delays in new technology and infrastructure investments call for decisive action.
Sommaire de la thèse
a) Conceptual Framework 3
b) Preamble 4
c) The Energy Industry 7
I - Europe faces its destiny; to a common energy policy? 14
a) A tendentious and inevitable energy dependence 14
The energy dependence vis-à-vis Russia 19
b) A common ambition... 20
c) ...But Russia divides 26
II - The post-Yeltsin Russia: back to energy independence 34
a) An energy giant 34
b) Gazprom, the new Russian Embassy 39
The diversification of Gazprom 48
c) The takeover of the state 50
III - Strong relationships, future in question 56
a) Interdependence, the key to a lasting relationship 56
b) The EU-Russia energy dialogue 58
c) Recent tensions 64
d) Post-Crisis Situation 75
e) New EU Policies 80
[...] Recognizing the tremendous potential of basement in Russia, Europe saw the arrival of a liberal Russia as the beginning of a peaceful trade relationship with its larger neighbour. For this, we must find a common framework in which to insert the energy challenge. By June 1990, the Dutch Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers presented his idea of the Energy Charter. This charter would ensure the free flow of energy supplies in the new Europe which is prepared following the Soviet collapse. [...]
[...] First, the world is made of an historic energy bulimia that weighs on the general offer. The global demand for oil explodes, which drives oil exporting countries to increase oil prices, an unsustainable solution in the long term but extremely fruitful in the short term! In 2005, the total consumption of primary energy in the world stood at nearly 11 billion toe (tons oil equivalent), whereas it was only 8 billion in 1990. This global energy 14 consumption is expected to grow by nearly 52% in 2030 compared to 2003 levels. [...]
[...] Nobody is fooled about the close relationship that the gas company has with the Kremlin. Since coming into power in 1999, Vladimir Putin has used Gazprom to largely take over the national economy and gave Russia an influence that it lost outside its borders. One can even say that the company has been the cornerstone of the revival of the country after the turmoil of the Yeltsin years. It only took six years for that Putin installs his men at the head of Gazprom. [...]
[...] German?French Dictionary http://www.wordreference.com/ 3. French?English Dictionary http://dico.isc.cnrs.fr/fr/index.html 4. Romanian French Dictionary www.dictionar.us 5. English?Russian Dictionary http://www.rambler.ru/dict/enru 6. French?Russian Dictionary http://www.abbyyonline.ru/ 7. Online Encyclopaedia Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org IV. Press, Newspapers, Magazines Press 1. ?Interfax? 2. ?Itar Tass? 3. [...]