The EU as a regional actor in the Mediterranean: from the EMP to the ENP and the UfM.
Résumé de l'étude de cas
The Euro-Mediterranean partnership (or the Barcelona Process) is an instrument of political dialogue created at the conference of foreign ministers in Barcelona on 27-28 November 1995. It includes the 25 member states of the European Union and 10 Southern and the Eastern Mediterranean states: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey, Libya and Mauritania attending conferences as an observer.
The Barcelona Declaration aims to turn the Mediterranean into a common area of peace, stability and prosperity through:
ï? Strengthening political dialogue and security;
ï? An economic and financial partnership;
ï? And a social, cultural and human.
These are the 3 components of the Barcelona Process.
In November 2005, the Barcelona Conference II, aimed to reinvigorate the partnership. Hence the question: more than ten years after its launch, where are we the Euro-Mediterranean partnership now?
My problematic? To discuss on the current and future partnership forged by a Europe moving and whose expansion has proved a turning point.
While relations between EU and PM had gradually increased (I), we must ask whether the construction of new external relations of the EU, namely the launch of a European Neighborhood Policy and the Union for the Med, can deepen the Euro-Mediterranean partnership, and if so for what future? (II and III).
Sommaire de l'étude de cas
I) Relations with the Med has strengthened
1. Formally, a partnership between European integration and development assistance
a) Historical links on both sides of the Mediterranean
b) a complex institutional framework in which two mechanisms coexist
c) Financial Cooperation
2. on the back: a novel approach, comprehensive, three-pronged
a) Security and Policy
b) the economic and financial
c) The social, cultural and human
II) The Future of the EMP with the ENP
1. The European Neighborhood Policy includes the process, but without replacing it
a) The ENP, a risk to the Barcelona Process
b) An enlargement seen as a withdrawal by the south...
c) ... or an opportunity for the Mediterranean partner countries
2. Make Barcelona II and the 10th anniversary of the EMP a real opportunity to recover
III) Union for the Med
1. The difficult start of the UFM
a. The origin of the UFM: the Barcelona Process
b) The creation of the UFM
2. UFM: a reality with an uncertain future
a) The purposes and operation of the MFU
b) The uncertain future of the UFM
Extraits de l'étude de cas
[...] According to the report drawn up in April 2005 by the European Commission for the tenth anniversary of the partnership3, a work program to meet the challenges of the next five years, migration and social integration of migrants is a central issue of the Euromed partnership million citizens from the Mediterranean partner countries (mainly Morocco, Algeria and Turkey) are now legally resident in the EU. The demographic situation in the EU is such that new migrants have to come to further strengthen the workforce. [...]
[...] The objective of Euro? Mediterranean partnership should therefore facilitate the political feasibility of reforms using of outside anchor. The Union for the Mediterranean has been a difficult and controversial gestation. Currently, UfM is still in its infancy so it is still too early to judge the effectiveness and relevance of its work which is already complex to work. [...]
[...] Through this program, the EU provides financial and technical support to Mediterranean partners to enable them to achieve the objectives of the Barcelona Declaration in its three components. The European Commission, in close collaboration with individual Mediterranean partners, develops programs to aid the economic transition, financed by MEDA. They take the form of 2 http://www.eib.org/ 4 support to private sector development and support to structural adjustment programs. MEDA also takes into account the issue of gender equality, promoting the role of women in economic and social life, and includes environmental aspects. [...]
[...] It is composed of 240 members (120 from Mediterranean partner countries and 120 from Europe). It has an advisory role and recommendation. Financial Cooperation Beyond trade, the association agreements of the Mediterranean partnership provide tools of financial cooperation to support economic transformation in the Mediterranean partner countries. The use of financial instruments (MEDA and EIB2) is subject to certain requirements (monitoring of agreements, progress of internal reform, and respect for human rights . Staffing is provided by project and not by country. [...]
[...] In particular it aims to develop economic activity in the private sector and to facilitate the access to finance for SME. FEMIP aims to support the reform and privatization of the economies of Mediterranean countries. Financed from own resources of the EIB and the EU budget, it has been launched to give fresh impetus to growth in the Mediterranean partner countries. With this new instrument, the European Union provides each year nearly 3 billion euros in total in loans and grants to the Mediterranean partners. [...]
À propos de l'auteur
Jérome J. D.StudentSciences politiquesThe EU as a regional actor in the Mediterranean: from the EMP to the ENP and the UfM.