Introduction: In the United States, affirmativeaction refers to policies intended to redress the effect of past and current discrimination on gender, race or ethnicity. These policies have consisted in granting preferences to women and minorities in areas of employment, education and business.
1- History: Affirmativeaction was first conceived for the Black community. In march 1961; president Kennedy introduced the term in his Executive Order. He settled an affirmativeaction program, which had to ensure that employees wouldn't be treated with regard to their race, religion, colour or national origin.
In 1964, the Civil Rights Act forbade any kind of discriminations in hiring at work or at school. Moreover, affirmativeaction changes up in helping people issued from minorities, on top of forbidding discriminations.
In 1967, President Johnson included gender discriminations in the affirmativeaction plan. He insisted on the fact that the US government must provide equal opportunity in Federal employment on the basis of merit and without any kind of discrimination.
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[...] It required all contractors working on large federally funded projects to adopt ?numerical goals? to assure the desegregation of their workforces - Affirmative action today: After several years of affirmative action, we can look at the results Pros We will mention 3 points that are in favor of affirmative action: - It promotes equal opportunities: it allows indeed minorities to get a job or a formation that they perhaps never could have because they have on average harder living conditions and lower incomes than the rest of the population. So it allows Blacks or Hispanics to be better integrated in the society. - Repairs some injustices of the past: the black community has been segregated until the 60's. Because of that, Black people weren't as well integrated as White people. So affirmative action was a way to rapidly cut the social gap between Blacks and Whites. [...]
[...] - It makes universities and businesses accept less qualified candidates: it lows the standards and sometimes people who benefit of affirmative action don't have an adequate standard. - It creates a dependence on public assistance: people who can benefit of affirmative action could tend to make less individual efforts. - Some studies show that Affirmative action works best for minorities who were already from middle-class backgrounds - Is affirmative action still needed? Thanks to affirmative action, the integration of women and minorities in the society has improved since the 1960's. [...]
À propos de l'auteur
Jean B.EtudiantRelations internationalesAffirmative action in the US