Document: Il s'agit d'un exposé sur l'origine du parlement britannique.
Extrait: Even at the beginning of the monarchy, when the king had absolute power, it was impossible for him to do everything himself. Therefore, he needed group of experienced advisers to help him reach a decision. This group originally composed of the most important noble men is at the origin of the British Parliament.
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[...] When they were less worse, Parliament met less often. For example, only once in every three years on average between 1453 and 1509. By the 15th century, the important noble men of the kingdom had established themselves into a hierarchy that was going to exist until the reform of the House of Lords in 1999.Important members of the Church were also members of the House of Lords. And perhaps surprisingly supported Henry VIII in his declaration of Independence from the Catholic Church, and the creation of the Church of England in 1534. [...]
[...] The party has its origins in the old Liberal party of the 19th century, and which was recreated after the split of 1916. The liberal party was never able to form a gvt after that date, remaining much less important than the other two parties which led the British parliamentary establishment being called the two party system. After WW2, the party had a series of interesting leaders especially Jeremy Thorpe who became the star of the gutter press in a series of homosexual sex scandals in 1960's. [...]
[...] From the middle Ages to The Civil WarDuring the late Middle Ages, Parliament met more frequently. For example, between 1327 and 1437, it was called once a year the Assembly now it came a representative organisation that participated in controversal or unusual changes in the law, or economic or social arrangements which made it unique in medieval Europe. It may had a monopoly over taxation. It was the highest Court in the land and it made new laws and modified existing ones through legislation. [...]
[...] The 350 voters of Buckingham still had as many members of Parliament as the 4000 electors of Leeds. England with 54% of the population voted for 71% of the House of Commons. In 1837, Queen Victoria came to the throne and established a period of constitutional stability. The census of 1851 showed that for the first time, more British people lived in towns than in the country. Living conditions for many, were atrocious and people working in factories were always subject to illness. [...]
[...] They therefore called only their land-owning Barons to the Grand Council, but also representatives of counties, cities and towns. Mainly to make them agree to additional taxation. In this way, the Grand Council came to include those who were summoned by a name the nobles, who would later become the House of Lords, and those who represented Communities such as Burgesses a group which became known as the Commons. These two groups in the Company of the sovereign became known as the Parliament. [...]
[...] For example, with the War Crimes Act of 1991 and the European Parliamentary Elections Act 1999. The most recent example, of the evocation of the Parliament Acts took place in December 2004 when the House of Lords rejected the Bill prohibiting fox hunting twice in the same session. In spite of Government efforts to delay a vote for a year or two, the House of Lords did not accept the compromise and the Speaker of the House of Commons was obliged to evoke the Parliament Act and the law was passed automatically. [...]
[...] with King James I. He had several disagreements with his Parliament, and in 1621, he lectured the Commons on the origins of its powers saying that they were only a gift from the King himself. During his reign, Parliament only met for two month a year and direct taxation accounted for less than of the total budget of Charles the first came to the throne. As we have already seen, Parliament refusal to finance his disastrous foreign policy caused him to rule without calling it from 1629 to 1640. [...]
[...] When George IV died in 1830, the Whigs under Earl Grey and Lord John Russell won the election. And introduced a Reform Bill to Parliament. When this was rejected, by the House of Lords, there were riots all over the country. For example, the Bishops Pallas in Bristol was attacked and is still in ruins today. In April the House of Lords, passed the Reform Bill which increased the number of electors by 50%. However, the system was still not perfect. [...]
[...] With an enormous increase in the working class vote. With the new tolerant society, that existed after 1918, a period which was called the Roaring Twenties all women over the age of 21 were permitted to vote by the reform of 1928. Parliament and Modern Times? The Supremacy of the House of CommonsLike in France, Britain as a bicameral system, the House of Lords being the upper house and the House of Commons the lower house. For much of its history, the House of Lords had equal power with the Commons. [...]
[...] Women decided that they could ni longer have confidence in what they saw as macho members of Parliament. And a group of mainly middle class women decided on a campaign for women's votes as part of the movement to become complete British citizens. Mrs Fawcett National Union of Women's suffragette societies formed in 1897, united a group of established organisation with mainly Liberal simpathis. However, a much more radical movement women's social and political union?, was founded by Emeline Pankhurts, in 1903. [...]
À propos de l'auteur
Maud D.EtudiantPhilosophieThe Origins of Parliament