Hume defines the problem of induction, wondering about the concept of causality, in order to found a Newtonian science of Human being.
Hume définit le problème de l'induction, s'interrogeant sur la notion de concept de causalité, afin de fonder une science newtonienne de l'être humain.
Sommaire de l'exposé
I) ''The future will resemble the past''
II) The foundation stone of Hume philosophical system
Extraits de l'exposé
[...] That is why Hume tries to determine the namely the foundational premiss, which are able to support inductive inferences. According to him, there are four 1. ?Similar causes have similar effects? ?Nature is uniform? future will resemble the past? future will be conformable to the past?. Causal inference therefore relies on these propositions if any one of them is considered as correct. Though, we have to go by demonstrative arguments deduction from relations of ideas applying the faculty of understanding in order to prove these arguments. [...]
[...] Consequently, Hume puts forward that induction from experience cannot be demonstratively justified and is not rational. Besides, Hume expounds a sceptical analysis of causal inference. In part 1 of Section having reached this conclusion, he argues that a mental faculty, which is not reason, open for us the possibility of thinking that the future will resemble the past. In other terms, the mind is led by a ?principle of equal weight and authority? 5.2 ) in human nature, which is not reason, to support induction. This principle is the psychological mechanism of habit or custom. [...]
[...] BAIER A., ''David Hume'' in Concise Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, London: Routdledge MILLICAN P. (1995), ''Hume's Argument Concerning Induction: Structure and Interpretation'', in TWEYMAN S. David Hume: Critical Assessments, London: Routledge. [...]
[...] However, this principle itself stems from probable reasoning. our experimental conclusions proceed upon the supposition, that the future will be conformable to the past. To endeavour, therefore, the proof of this last supposition by probable arguments, or arguments regarding existence, must be evidently going in a circle, and taking that for granted, which is very point in question 4.19 ) . Where is the medium? . The inference is not intuitive; neither it is demonstrative . To say it is experimental, is begging the question 4.21 Hume's argument concerning induction is the foundation stone of his philosophical system. [...]
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