Document: Globalization, fiche de 7 pages en anglais sur le phénomène de mondialisation
Extrait: The HDI has extended the meaning of development to include real income, education and life expectancy. Even so there are considerable similarities between the GNP and HIS maps.
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[...] WORLD CITIES: They have two outstanding characteristics. headquarters of many TNCs Wal Mart Stores BP Total 1st four global cities: Tokyo 50 Paris 26 NY 22 London 22 They support large concentrations of producer services 2 of the world's biggest TNCs (Microsoft and Boeing) have their headquarters in Seattle. World Cities: More political institutions Financial and other producer services Important activities: politics, science, education Educated girls marries later Fewer or spaced children Better care and nutrition for self and children Increase of children's survival health transition Reduces overall fertility demographic transition Improves children's learning and education Educated Girls fewer children better education improve standard of living DOMINATING DOMINATED AN OBSOLETE DIVISION all the economic exchanges and wealth are concentrated in the Triad not easy for ex-communist countries, born after the collapse of the USSR, to transform a collectivist into a market economy. [...]
[...] - a country's economic power measured by determining its gross national product or gross domestic product . - industrialised countries produce more than 80% of the total GNP - The more farmers there are, the less developed the country is. - Dominant in the Triad: tertiary sector - 20% of the poorest people have of world income, compared with in 1960. Quality of life: - the UNDP (UN Development Programme), established in 1965, created the Human development index (HDI ) in 1990 and the Human Poverty Index (HPI) in 1997. [...]
[...] Religion: Resurgence of Islam Western countries are turning away from Christianity. World language of communication: Anglo-American language GLOBALIZATION CRITICISMS civil disobedience: José Bové: symbol of anti-globalization by his actions Evian in June 2003: demonstration ?Alternative villages? They are criticizing G.W.Bush because: Iraq war Neo-liberalism Americanisation of the world Seattle in 1999: WTO Summit They had to stop the summit because of demonstrations. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT It should lead to an improvement in people's: Quality of life (better way of life and environment in which they live) Standard of living (become better off economically) Sustainable development may be achieved by: Developing technology appropriate to skills, wealth and needs of local people Developing local skills so that they may be handed down to future generations Using natural resources without spoiling the environment Developing materials that will use fewer resources Using materials that will last for longer Resources: 3 Rs: Renew, Recycle, Replace Sustainable development in MEDCs: It is a necessity because it's the MEDCs that: Consume most of the world's resources, such as fossil fuels, minerals and timber Are the greatest contributors to global pollution, for example global warming and acid rain. [...]
[...] GLOBALIZATION The Rostow model Walt Rostow was an economist. Stage The traditional society Subsistence economy based mainly upon farming. Stage The pre-conditions for take-off some technological improvements development of transport network slow improvement of standards of living Stage Take-off growing of manufacturing industry Increasing investment in agriculture, transport and services. Rapid improvement of standard of living Stage The drive to maturity Rapid urbanisation and declining primary activity. Standards of living continue to improve. Stage The age of high mass-consumption Rapid expansion of service and high-tech industries. [...]