Cosmopolitan project of democracy: toward a global civil society?
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During the few months before the start of war against Iraq, many marches to protest against the USA foreign policy took place, even and maybe especially in countries whose government was officially supporting this policy. Many journalists talked about the ?emerging globalcivilsociety?. This concept however is not new. It is extremely important in the Cosmopolitan project of democracy, which actually comes from the Kantian tradition. This project aims at achieving a world order based on the rule of law and democracy. By civilsociety, I will refer not as the Kantian meaning which is in opposition to the state of nature, but to a more contemporary meaning, i.e. to the set of institutions, organisations and behaviour situated between the state, the business world, and the family. Specifically, this includes voluntary and non-profit organisations of many different kinds, philanthropic institutions, social and political movements and other forms of social participation and engagement.
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[...] The main point is to say that citizens should participate in the debate over global problems, and latter, in decision-making. But is that possible? II) Toward a global civil society pushing for the achievement of the cosmopolitan project of democracy? The critics of cosmopolitanism seems to lead to the conclusion that there is not possible area for the emergence of a global civil society The problem of individualism For the model that I've just described to be possible, citizens have to commit themselves to global causes through trans-national associations. [...]
[...] She points out that identity within community is based on stories in which people believed. These stories create bounds among them. Therefore, she concludes, ?what cosmopolitanism requires is a story about social changes and problems in world society or within states could affect individual self-understandings, thus encouraging new practices and relationships and how these in turn could provide the motivation for new political formation?. In short, if people believe in cosmopolitan democracy, this fate will create the necessary common identity to create it. And one can see that already, some do. [...]
[...] This issue for us today is: cosmopolitan project of democracy: toward a global civil society? For me, there are two aspects in the formulation of such an issue: first, how important global civil society in the cosmopolitan project of democracy is and second, is a global civil society emerging in a fashion that would allow us to predict the achievement of the cosmopolitan project of democracy? I will argue that in that civil society plays a huge role in the cosmopolitan project of democracy, and that the emergence of such a society can let us hope for the achievement of the Kantian project. [...]
[...] The Cosmopolitan project of democracy has an important institutional aspect that I didn't talk about because I wanted to focus on civil society. However, both are closely related. If democratization is to be understood, in the cosmopolitan theory, as a bottom-up process, one can expect that governments should respond. One can point out that for the most important international organisations; trans-national associations are left out of the decision- making process. It is the case for the UN Security Council and the WTO. [...]
[...] As well, under the pressure of international civil society, humanitarian international law has developed at a very high degree: a strong legal system has been constructed to regulate not only relationship among the states (WTO law, ICJ) but also individuals (Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, International Penal Tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and finally, the International Penal Court). The critic of realist theoreticians may explain why is hasn't work yet. The main driving force of international politics, they say, is national interest. It is highly unlikely that a government will give priority to global rather than national interests. As well, the cosmopolitan theory doesn't take into account the power relations among states, and between actors and the international arena. [...]
[...] Cosmopolitan project of democracy: toward a global civil society? During the few months before the start of war against Iraq, many marches to protest against the USA foreign policy took place, even and maybe especially in countries whose government was officially supporting this policy. Many journalists talked about the ?emerging global civil society?. This concept however is not new. It is extremely important in the Cosmopolitan project of democracy, which actually comes from the Kantian tradition. This project aims at achieving a world order based on the rule of law and democracy. [...]
[...] Evidences As Martin Kölher points out, ?there is an abundance of evidence to support the thesis of an emerging global civil society and the formation of a global polity?. In many issues of public concern- economic development, peace, social policy, environmental issues, consumer concerns and civil liberties, interests groups have developed beyond borders, building trans-national networks capable to influence the arena of inter-governmental decision- making in global affairs. Kölher underlines that even if they didn't receive a formal mandate from any political community or authority, the former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali said that there are basic form of popular representation in the present day world. [...]
[...] Indeed, one can see that different forms of representation are made necessary by the fact that even in democratic countries, national public opinion is not generally consulted on such specific issues as global problems and notable differences might emerge b/w the positions of governments and those of civil society: cf. French and the nuclear experiment in the Pacific, cf. the Iraq War and Spain. . to the need of a global civil society . David Held, in an article called ?Democracy: From City-states to a Cosmopolitan Order?, shows that traditional models of democracy are not sufficient to build a model for cosmopolitan democracy. [...]
À propos de l'auteur
Arnaud D.PhilosophieCosmopolitan project of democracy: toward a global civil society?