To what extent is Brazil and its development typical of a nation of the South?
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Document: Etude sur le Brésil, exemple d'un pays du Sud, Document an anglais (4 pages)
Extrait: The term « South » which today designates the southern developing countries as opposed to the northern, more industrialized nations, finds its origins in the phrase « Third World » first used in 1952 by the demographer Alfred Sauvy in an article entitled « Three Worlds, One Planet ». The term « Third World » used to designate the poor, newly decolonized countries or those about to become independent, which, in the midst of the Cold War, struggled to define their own identity in a rigorous bipolar globe, where both the United States and the USSR sought to extend their spheres of influence. The « Third World » therefore found its unity in « Non-Alignement », which it proclaimed in April 1955 at the Bandung Conference (Indonesia). At the time, all third-world countries shared the same characteristics: a booming and mainly rural population, widespread poverty and hunger as well as an underdeveloped and undiversified economy. Today, the notion of the « South » is becoming more and more complex, due to the unequal development of its members. The East Asian Dragons, which were once members of the « South », have become leading players on the international scene, thanks to an impressive economic development. Similarly the petrol-producing countries have entered an era of prosperity thanks to the increasing demand for oil. Meanwhile, South America has had to struggle to enter the globalization process, and Sub-Saharan Africa has been sinking into a series of crises it has still not overcome today. The diversity of the South thus makes it more difficult to define a typicalsouthern profile, yet we will analyze to what extent Brazil and its development are typical of a country of the South.
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[...] Whereas these first figures show Brazil's considerable development over the last few decades, the widespread poverty and the unequal distribution of income remind us that Brazil still belongs to the developing world. First of all Brazil is affected by unequal regional development. The considerable differences in terms of social and economic conditions within the Brazilian territory enables us to distinguish three main areas of development. First the Brazil? from the Nordeste to Rio de Janeiro, is still very rural and its population is often very poor. Secondly the Brazil? of the south and south-east produces 76% of the countries GNP, with 57% of the population on only 18% of the land. [...]
[...] The diversity of the South thus makes it more difficult to define a typical southern profile, yet we will analyze to what extent Brazil and its development are typical of a country of the South. First of all, Brazil is a strong international player, with a relatively developed and diversified economy. Fifth in the world for its land area of over 8.5 million square kilometers and for its population of over 188 million in 2006, it is by far the largest and most populous nation of South America. [...]
[...] The most striking example of these inequalities is the establishment of full-scale shanty towns (known in Brazil as favelas) alongside luxurious villas and residences. In Rio de Janeiro alone, one of the two most developed cities of Brazil, there were one million people living in favelas in the year 2000, out of the five million favelas-dwellers in Brazil. These favelas were often established as the rural exodus was going on and people from the countryside were swarming into big cities in the hope of finding a job and a better pay. [...]
[...] Today, Brazil is arguably between stages four and five of Rostow's development model. Thus, at an intermediate position between rapid industrialization and mass consumption, Brazil's rather developed economy is a sign of Brazil's emergence as a developing country, in this respect more ?northern? than ?southern?. Secondly, while countries of the South are characterized by a booming population and massive rural exodus, Brazil seems about to finish its demographic transition. In 1950 the population located in the South consisted of 1.6 billion people, representing 67% of the global population. [...]
[...] Indeed, although Brazil is ranked eighth regarding its GNP, it is only ranked sixty- fifth regarding its GNP per capita (about $ 10.000 per capita). We have thus shown that, although overall the Brazilian population is getting richer thanks to a growing economy, economic growth has not yet benefitted the whole of the Brazilian society in a manner that would ensure social cohesion. Arguably, these social disparities are also a characteristic of the developing South, considering that countries such as Bolivia, Tanzania, Mexico, Ethiopia and South Africa all have a richest/poorest revenue ratio superior to 25 (UNDP 2003 estimates). [...]
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DocsenstockHistoire contemporaine : XIXe, XXe et XXIeTo what extent is Brazil and its development typical of a nation of the South?