The access to drinkable and pure water in the third world.
Résumé de l'exposé
Ce court exposé explique les enjeux principaux de l'accès à l'eau potable pour les populations du Sud. A travers un propos précis et chiffré, ce document permet d'appréhender efficacement ce problème majeur, en passant en revu les divers acteurs (Etats, OIG, ONG) tout en étayant l'analyse de considérations géographiques et sociales. Document en anglais.
Sommaire de l'exposé
I/ A global view of the situation
II/ A local and complex problem
III/ A very important political challenge
Extraits de l'exposé
[...] Population don't have access to purifying, and the deaseses due to water are a true problem of public health. Of course, natural conditions can be a problem for the acces to drinkable water. Haiti is regulary confronted with flooding, deforestation . His drinkable water network is destroyed, and the governement, very poor, cannot make the indispensable repairings. The population must find solutions itself, in terrible hygienic conditions. The political situation of a country is a very important factor to explain this problem. [...]
[...] But, here again, nothing is simple. How promote the hygiene in areas where water and soap are still a luxe? Here again, the willpower of the government is essential. In Nicaragua, hygiene is an official subject in school . and the children's washing of hands have increased of eighty percent since the beginning of this politic. This political challenge is complex. Indeed, who can be responsable of the maintenance of the drinkable water network and of the distribution of water? [...]
[...] A geographical analyse can explain why. This slum is on a marsh, at the estuary of Wouri, an african river. The water cannot infiltrate, and all the wastes of the town, thrown in the river are concentrated on the banks of the estuary, where people takes the water to live. With the very high cencentration of population, the epidemics are terrible and recurring. Moreover, slums don't have toilets or sewers. Stools and all the other wastes are thrown in the streets, where the stagnant water can infect the wells. [...]
[...] Malaria, Cholera, Bilharzioze desease transmitted by a shellfish notably present in the irrigation canals in Dogon area in Mali), Yellow fever, are due to water, because dirty or stagnant water is a very important source for the mosquito eggs infected by malaria or yellow fever. Malaria kills, each year, between one and three millions persons. It is the equivalent of one dead all the thirty seconds. The more concerned areas are: the central africa, the south Asia, and a part of south america. [...]
[...] If a real progress have been made in the last years, the situation, notably with urbanisation, is more urgent than ever. Indeed, this problem is very complex, and cannot be explain with a global explaination. Each country is different, an all the problematics are differents. But we must not have a manichean view. The problem of access to drinkable water isn't a third world characteristic. In the developed countries, some people don't have access to water, and this population doesn't appear in the statitstics. It is the situation, for exemple, of the homeless, more in more numerous in France. [...]
À propos de l'auteur
Benjamin C.EtudiantGéographie mondeThe access to drinkable and pure water in the third world.