Document: The americanjury, fiche de droit américain de 4 pages, en anglais
Extrait: In the beginning, juries were only composed of witnesses who had seen what had happened and who were under the judge's authority. Little by little, jurors become independent from the judge but also from the facts.
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[...] A bill of indictment is presented to the grand jury. This last examines the accused and witnesses (who are only witnesses of the prosecution and who cannot be questioned by the accused). If a witness refuses to come or do a wrong testimony, he or she could go in jail but he or she can plead the 5th Amendment and refuse to answer the questions if the answers can incriminate him or her (but this technique could be dangerous because the grand jury could think this witness is guilty). [...]
[...] The selection of a trial jury, also called petit jury, is done into two phases: first, a jury pool is chosen, then the trial jury itself. The jury pool is the list of the potential jurors on which the jury panel, that is to say the trial jury, will be elaborated. The selection of the petit jury among the jury pool is called the procedure of ?voir dire?. Here intervene the very famous challenges which permit to expulse persons who could be partial; potential jurors are questioned by the lawyer of the defendant and by the prosecutor usually but the judge can also do it. [...]
[...] THE AMERICAN JURY The pre-trial phase A. The setting-up of the jury: In the beginning, juries were only composed of witnesses who had seen what had happened and who were under the judge's authority. Little by little, jurors become independent from the judge but also from the facts. To be a juror, some conditions exist: you need to be 18 years old at least, to be an American citizen, to live for at least 1 year in the locality, to have an empty police record, to sufficiently know English language, to be impartial . [...]